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  1. The Seven Mantras
  2. Assurance Based Project Management
About the Author
Mantra One – Foreseeing the Bigger Picture 

The success of a project depends on the sharing of a common vision and goals by the project team members and the customer. A good way to achieve this is to enable the project team to familiarize themselves with the customer's business context and goals. This can lead to enhanced comfort level for the project team which will help them operate efficiently. Even unvoiced customer expectations can be perceived and pursued.

A habitual way of thinking and handling project situations, keeping the bigger picture of the customer relationship in mind, needs to be developed. Ultimately, it is customer delight that decides the extent of business growth. However, project managers should strive consistently to maintain profitability levels.

As abpmcorp hosts industry seminars and customer summits, it is able to create the right perception among customers to look at abpmcorp for outsourcing more of their IT services requirements. There is scope for similar 'opportunity engineering' during all phases of the project lifecycle. This is possible for a team which develops the habit of foreseeing the bigger picture at all times.

There are instances where abpmcorp absorbed some cost of resources due to delays on the customer side. While this was done in the overall interest, the project manager communicated this as quantified metrics, which was leveraged as a bargaining point for negotiating the next project.

In another example, the spare resources in a maintenance project were used to develop a tool for the ongoing work to be taken as a conversion project. This proposal was recommended to the customer, who saw value in converting the existing portfolio of applications to a newer platform and awarded this work to abpmcorp.This mantra should be thoughtfully used to translate project decisions into business success, leading to stakeholders' delight in the long run.

It is imperative to foresee the big picture and explore new opportunities even at the cost of additional efforts. Applying stretch behavior in exploring new ideas can prove to be a differentiating factor leading to more business opportunities. This creates an enormous value for the customer.

It is always beneficial for the project manager to play a leading role in helping the team to cultivate this mantra of always foreseeing the bigger picture.

Let us look at a few examples that demonstrate this mantra and the positive take aways of applying this mantra.

Sample Illustration

CONTEXT 2.1: Capitalizing on alliance partnership to deliver speed.

DESCRIPTION: abpmcorp entered into a collaboration agreement with the customer (an insurance major in UK) who was looking for ETI specialists to convert some of their data warehouse feeds. The customer had already done a pilot through another vendor and was in the process of finalizing the contract with them, targeting around 17 conversions. But abpmcorp had limited experience on ETI.

APPROACH: abpmcorp explored the market quickly to find a partner who had expertise on ETI and finalized the alliance agreement. Next, the business lead was identified through constant discussions with the customer PM. Information on ETI collaboration with abpmcorp was showcased. A pool of ETI skills with live project experience and new service offering for abpmcorp was generated. A good reference for other RFIs was created.

OUTCOME: abpmcorp successfully grabbed the first ETI project due to continuous and constant deliberations with the customer and sharing information about their partnership with various organizations.
A subsequent T&M project was awarded to abpmcorp with ten offshore resources for about a month by the same customer, which resulted in more revenues.

  • Scout for partners if the organization has no expertise on the requirements of the customer.
  • Be aware of the know-how of technical alliances that a company possess and share this information with the customer if required.
  • Have continuous discussions with the customer and the core team.
  • Speed to alliance and speed to co-deliver demonstrates leadership in 'being prepared for opportunities of the future.'
RELATED MANTRAS:Mantra Two: Investing in Customer and Team Education. Mantra Three: Information Seeding.

CONTEXT 2.2: Providing an innovative proposal to the customer to overcome competition.
CONTEXT 2.3: Exploring new opportunities of outsourcing from the customer.
CONTEXT 2.4: Requesting the customer for global license and a higher version of software.
CONTEXT 2.5: Changing the contract mode for different phases of delivery.
CONTEXT 2.6: Converting offshore warranty to onsite warranty.
CONTEXT 2.7: Optimizing the cost of a pilot project using offline execution mode.
CONTEXT 2.8: Lending a helping hand to the customer in meeting the deadline.
CONTEXT 2.9: Institutionalizing schedule and dependency management in projects.
CONTEXT 2.10: Suggesting proactive ideas to the customer to save time and resources.
CONTEXT 2.11: Reducing the execution time of the test suite by parallel processing.
CONTEXT 2.12: Optimizing Test Suites to reduce execution time.
CONTEXT 2.13: Tailoring the process to promote major enhancements towards production.
CONTEXT 2.14: Arriving at a more detailed specification in case of open requirements.
CONTEXT 2.15: Revising the estimate keeping in mind the customer and context.
CONTEXT 2.16: Estimating using insufficient information and open requirements.


Mantra Two – Investing in Customer and Team Education 

In every project, we need to inculcate the habit of investing time throughout the project to educate the customer and team on various aspects. This can include observations, metrics, expectations, deadlines, complexities, etc. Any organization which imparts training and knowledge to its customers (external and internal) will benefit in terms of ROI, loyalty, growth and satisfaction.

The time spent to educate the customer and the team will, of course, vary from project to project, and depends upon factors such as:
  • Project size
  • Complexity
  • Resource skill level
  • Team composition
  • Technology
  • Domain expertise
However, care should be taken to ensure that it is not done at the expense of project execution time. Instead, it should be factored into the project planning and initial estimation. In many instances, the customer appreciates the benefits of this investment of time. More significantly, this prevents costly re-work and provides for course correction at the early stages of the project.

Through customer education, the team can pay attention to the customer's concern. The team can provide supporting documents and problem-related metrics to resolve the issue amicably. This provides an opportunity for the team to improve the customer's process as well as add value to the partnership.

Customer education provides a means for the team to be involved in the requirement analysis phase and gives visibility to the development of the project. Educating the customer on new technologies and skill-sets required for the project is also necessary for proper delivery. Demonstrating capability for large-scale ramp up in a short time opens up better outsourcing opportunities.

Team education is as important as customer education. It enables the team members to become efficient in problem solving and brings stability to the project. Documenting and sharing technical solutions specific to the project helps developers to rectify defects quickly.

Team education also helps define appropriate measures to track the maturity of work performed in a project environment and provides methods to analyze and improve productivity.

Note: The extent to which this habit can be practiced depends on the existing state of customer-vendor relationship maturity and comfort levels.

Let us look at a few examples that demonstrate this habit and its positive take aways.

Let us look at a few examples that demonstrate this habit and its positive take aways.

CONTEXT 3.1: Partnering with the customer during requirements analysis phase.
CONTEXT 3.2: Convincing the customer with metrics to approve initial resources.
CONTEXT 3.3: Managing risk during the requirements analysis phase (Prototype Presentation).
CONTEXT 3.4: Giving the customer the confidence in breakthrough ramp-up strategy for new skills.
CONTEXT 3.5: Convincing the customer to increase the number of Full Time Equivalents (FTEs) for enhanced customer support.
CONTEXT 3.6: Customer unwilling to invest in upgrading package.
CONTEXT 3.7: Enable the customer to independently troubleshoot simple problems.
CONTEXT 3.8: Maintaining a performance record of team members for objective assessment.
CONTEXT 3.9: Evaluation Score Card for knowledge transfer.
CONTEXT 3.10: Sharing defect analysis reports and preventive measures with the team.
CONTEXT 3.11: Estimating productivity while executing a large product support project.
CONTEXT 3.12: Modifying the work process to reduce delays in delivery.
CONTEXT 3.13: Sharing project-end metrics with the customer.
CONTEXT 3.14: Taking application sign-off through user certification.
CONTEXT 3.15: Minimizing expectation mismatch by creating awareness on the Service.
Level Agreements (SLAs) among customer and users.


Mantra Three – Information Seeding 

This mantra is about consistently seeding information in the customer's mind. We can provide proactive information to the customer and other stakeholders (in a phased manner) right from the beginning of a project. This can be done through weekly or periodic status reports, conference calls, other customer interaction opportunities and internal team meetings. Seeding information will ensure that the customer and the team share the same understanding on the project execution details and milestones to be achieved.

Information seeding is done throughout the life cycle of the project. This can be as frequent as considered beneficial, even when the going is smooth. The intent is to proactively steer the project clear of potential vulnerable situations and also to avoid unpleasant surprises at a later stage in the project. Consequently, this introduces more opportunities for growth in the relationship among the external and internal stakeholders of the project.


Internal Stakeholders: On several occasions, the customer's project manager may herself be aware of the identified risks but may not be able to enlighten his internal stakeholders. This may be either due to lack of information sharing or due to his inability to see the risk. Seeding information about risks to the customer and stakeholders helps build their confidence in the team.

The project team can seed information in the customer by maintaining tracking sheets for every module or stage and packet created, using status reports. This helps the customer and the team understand changes incorporated within the program.

Customized tracking systems need to be designed for complex projects. It would also help explore the possibility of automating the tracking processes. This can be followed up by educating the team and the stakeholders on any new automation systems incorporated into the project.

Sharing information on project issues helps the team and the customer utilize the team efforts correctly, apart from streamlining the workflow of team resources and providing advance understanding to the customer on the implication of delays from her side in terms of cost.

Let us look at a few examples that demonstrate this mantra and its positive take aways.

CONTEXT 4.1: Project kick-off presentation to the customer.
CONTEXT 4.2: Defining Service Level Agreement (SLA) during an established phase.
CONTEXT 4.3: Responding to Change Requests (CR) using impact analysis.
CONTEXT 4.4: Factoring the customer constraints for time in project execution.
CONTEXT 4.5: Implementing a bug tracking system for a large project.
CONTEXT 4.6: Sharing knowledge by creating tracking sheets.
CONTEXT 4.7: Re-negotiating to solve project tracking and bug fixing issues.
CONTEXT 4.8: Sharing the Estimation Technique with the client, where approval cycle for Change Requests is longer.
CONTEXT 4.9: Analyzing the review comments on the deliverables for the customer.
CONTEXT 4.10: Seeding information among team members to improve efficiency.
CONTEXT 4.11: Sharing the risk with stakeholders.
CONTEXT 4.12: Periodic reporting on the infrastructure environment.
CONTEXT 4.13: Analyzing customer feedback on project artifacts.
CONTEXT 4.14: Generating revenue through information seeding about knowledge resources.
CONTEXT 4.15: Handling Wait Time in the project.
CONTEXT 4.16: Overcoming discontinuity in a project.


Mantra Four – Perception Management 

There will be multiple stakeholders involved in a project and it becomes the project manager's responsibility to manage the perceptions and expectations of each of them. Lack of communication or improper tracking of action items and minutes can lead to unrealistic expectations. If these perceptions are managed from the beginning, then conflicts can be avoided at a later stage. The three key factors in any project are schedule, cost/effort and quality. The issues arising from these can be successfully handled by positively influencing the perceptions of the stakeholders.

The opportunities for a project manager in perception management are abundant; for example,
  • Weekly status reports covering project progress, issues, risks foreseen, slippages and other sections in agreement with the customer. The reports should address multiple stakeholders.
  • Sharing the project plan with the customer.
  • Providing intermediate deliverables and feedback.
  • Adopting iterative mode of development.
  • Piloting/Prototype.

Communication through the above means serves to manage perceptions and expectations about project-related activities among the various stakeholders. As there are multiple stakeholders involved in a project, the PM has to manage the perception of each stakeholder.

At every stage, the project manager needs to consciousl y visualize the customer's perceptions in given situations and work towards a clearer understanding. In the instances outlined, the project manager visualized that providing a Proof-of-Concept would explain new technologies to the customer. In the other examples, prioritization of the customer's business requirements and a pictorial walkthrough of the project specifications helped manage the customer's perception.

Developing and sharing common perceptions on new technologies and skills help build customer confidence. Training team members in relevant skills before initiating a project is important for its early completion and bolsters customer confidence. In this case, the team was trained on new technologies to meet the customer's requirements and shared a common perception using Proof-of-Concept.

Having a clear understanding of the customer's business priorities is important to deliver priority-based deliverables. One of the cases presented here shows how the team modified a project plan to prioritize the deliverables and provide customer satisfaction.

Sometimes, it is important that the team performs the analysis along with the customer. Customers can be turned off by bulky documentation which is difficult to comprehend. Simplifying documentation and presenting it to the customer in an easy-to-grasp manner can facilitate smooth execution of the project.

Perception and expectation management also plays an important role in resource utilization. In one case, the approach followed by the team helped keep the customer informed and alert about resources which was already allocated to the project but were kept waiting for approval.

The following examples demonstrate this mantra and its positive take aways. It should be noted that when the term 'Customer service' or 'Customer treatment' is used, it also means servicing your internal customers. The practices and steps recommended here cater to both kinds of customers.

Note: In the light of Mantra four, there are various lessons to be learnt from certain recommended books. These provide readers with the golden steps of customer service and customer loyalty. A most important book in this category is Creating Customer Evangelists: How Loyal Customers Become a Volunteer Sales Force by Ben McConnell. This book studies eight companies from diverse industries and describes a six-step plan for building customer evangelism. Best Practices in Customer Service by Ron Zemke maps out the WHYS and HOWS of superior customer service, one of the areas where the competitive advantages are determined. Other books on the same lines are Customer Satisfaction Is Worthless, Customer Loyalty Is Priceless by Jeffrey Gitomer and Art of Client Service by Solomon Robert.

CONTEXT 5.1: Working on a new development technology.
CONTEXT 5.2: Preparing Knowledge Transition (KT) checklist for Knowledge Management.
CONTEXT 5.3: Identifying and delivering as per the customer's priority and expectations.
CONTEXT 5.4: Suggesting alternative solutions to customers for better performance.
CONTEXT 5.5: Effective resource management to minimize resource idleness.
CONTEXT 5.6: Avoiding penalty by adopting an appropriate strategy.
CONTEXT 5.7: Keeping the customer informed of his delay in review/approval.
CONTEXT 5.8: Validation of software requirements by adopting a storyboard approach.
CONTEXT 5.9: Customized Process Handbook to improve the execution processes and process maturity for abpmcorp and the customer.
CONTEXT 5.10: Generating revenue from idle resources during project hold-off.


Mantra Five – Learning to Say a Positive No/Conditional Yes 

This mantra entails tactfully saying a positive NO or a conditional YES to the customer, based on the situation. This is done with a positive attitude of guiding the customer to make an informed, better decision by using specific data and information that matter such as schedule, cost, quality and deliverables.

There may be situations where, instead of declining the customer's request, the project manager can suggest alternatives that are favorable to both the customer and abpmcorp. This can be supported by genuine reasons, which may include business viability, profitability, brand perception, outcome of the project, etc.

Another option would be to agree to the customer's request with a few stated conditions. This could reflect a partnership approach for sharing the level of risks undertaken. There have been many cases where the customers have appreciated and benefited from the choices provided by the abpmcorp project manager.

Find a positive way to state negatives, while responding to change requirements from the customer. If an analysis proves that the new requirement will put additional burden on the project team and thereby risk the deliverables of the project, then it must be communicated effectively to the customer. The customer will always support logical thinking in making any decisions about the future course of action.

Saying NO, howsoever justified, always entails the risk of losing the project. On the flip side, not saying NO could leave the organization with an unprofitable account that may not be sustainable in the long run. This should be tried out in proper contexts with discretion. The ability to say a positive NO or a conditional YES is important in such situations.

Let us look at a few examples that demonstrate this mantra and the positive take aways of applying this mantra.

CONTEXT 6.1: Suggesting relevant functionality not represented in Change Request.
CONTEXT 6.2: Suggesting an alternative plan to the customer for smooth project delivery.
CONTEXT 6.3: Effectively scheduling additional work requests.
CONTEXT 6.4: Responding to Change Requests on a priority basis.
CONTEXT 6.5: Accepting the Change Requests conditionally by presenting the customer with options.
CONTEXT 6.6: Accepting customer's demand conditionally.
CONTEXT 6.7: Apprising the customer of the maintenance and security risks of the software being used by them.
CONTEXT 6.8: Meeting a customer's urgent requirement.
CONTEXT 6.9: Creating a scalable design keeping in mind the projects in the pipeline.
CONTEXT 6.10: Convincing the customer to consider enhancements as a separate version.
CONTEXT 6.11: Providing probable deviation in effort estimates in an ambiguous situation.
CONTEXT 6.12: Estimating and proposing project timeline against the customer's demand.


Mantra Six – Steering the Comfort Levels 

Projects are quite often executed with a very heavy bearing on either organization comfort or customer comfort. But for a win-win situation, both the organization as well as the customer should be in a comfort zone.

Customers recognize project teams that are very adaptable in delivering what business demands. This habit of proactively offering various choices to the customer, backed with information on the pros and cons of each solution, enables customers to make informed and better decisions. Applying this habit helps in steering the comfort levels of the customer organization.

It is, however, necessary for the project manager to be sensitive to both customer and abpmcorp comfort levels and steer them in a balanced manner. This results in value creation through profitability and win-win relationships.

Steering Comfort Levels

Comfort to abpmcorp/customer
Low High
Comfort to abpmcorp
Comfort to Customer
Comfort Zone

In the following example of steering comfort levels for the customer and abpmcorp, the PM suggested utilization of idle resources for the customer's low-priority projects. This helped in optimal use of billable resources for the customer, and abpmcorp could retain their experienced resources and increased their business revenues. In another case, the project manager explored various options of knowledge transition from onsite customer to offshore abpmcorp team. Effective Knowledge Transfer through conference calls helped cut project expenses for the customer, thereby increasing their comfort level.

There is also a case where the team's early risk planning at the RFP stage avoided schedule slippage. The risks identified at the RFP stages need to be consolidated with risks identified at the project initiation phase. Raising red flags and keeping track of the anticipated risks can result in mitigation.

Let us look at a few examples that demonstrate this mantra and the positive take aways of applying this mantra.

CONTEXT 7.1: Optimizing the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) for the customer.
CONTEXT 7.2: Removing process ambiguity by using Quality Templates.
CONTEXT 7.3: Handling a new domain from offshore through alternative Knowledge Transfer approach.
CONTEXT 7.4: Using flexible work pattern to improve the comfort level.
CONTEXT 7.5: Tracking the risks identified at the RFP (Request for Proposal) stage throughout the project life cycle.
CONTEXT 7.6: Identifying and developing re-usable components/automation of process.
CONTEXT 7.7: Reducing the Product Release Testing time on multiple OS platforms.
CONTEXT 7.8: Transition from Maintenance to Conversion mode.
CONTEXT 7.9: Status reporting in shared development scenario.
CONTEXT 7.10: Training of resources as per the project requirements to avoid dependency.
CONTEXT 7.11: Developing transparent mechanisms to track project issues.
CONTEXT 7.12: Preventing defects by proactive system monitoring.
CONTEXT 7.13: Baseline the estimates for accuracy.
CONTEXT 7.14: Tracking productivity and schedule variations using a tool.

DESCRIPTION: For major or minor enhancements, the customer had a process called 'Process Jar'. All approved requests would be logged into the 'Process Jar' for every cycle. The estimations were done before completing the requirements gathering. Because of this, there was a scope creep and schedule variation for almost all requests.

APPROACH: To showcase the team's efforts and to capture the deviations between the initial estimates and the actual efforts, an in-house (Visual Basic, MS Access-based) tool was developed. Productivity, work request progress and issues or hurdles were monitored using this tool. This tool also gave the required data to support the approved Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and schedules. With the historic data captured in this tool, the team was in a better position to give the estimates before the initiation of a request.

OUTCOME: The customized reports generated to share data about SLAs and schedule variations with the customers greatly improved the level of communication and transparency within the team and with the client.

  • Suggest an alternative approach to keep track of efforts required, SLAs and productivity.
  • A pre-defined structured approach which captures SLAs, variances and work progress can reduce the burden on Knowledge Transfer while transitioning a work to a different member. It also improves the communication within the team.

RELATED MANTRAS: Mantra Seven: Thinking $ for Stakeholders.
Project Human Resources Management
Project Integration Management
Project Cost Management
Project Communications Management
Project Scope Management
Project Quality Management
Project Risk Management
Project Time Management
Project Procurement Management

CONTEXT 7.15: Steering mutual comfort level by an effective pricing model.
CONTEXT 7.16: Enhancing the delight level of end-customers.


Mantra Seven – Thinking $ for Stakeholders 

One of the most crucial aspects of successful project execution and sustained business growth is profitability. This means achieving cost optimization for all stakeholders (customer, investor, abpmcorp team). We need to proactively look at ways to achieve this. Here are some of the ways of doing this:
  • Having the right mix of skilled resources (new and experienced) on the project as per the project requirements.
  • Having the right mix of onsite-offshore associates or regularly placing them on rotation.
  • Looking at innovative solutions, keeping the customer requirements in mind so that there is enhanced productivity.
  • Developing re-usable routines or modules whenever possible.
  • Automation of process or tools.
  • Generating revenue, by using idle resources during wait time in projects, in a win-win manner.

By following such practices, not only will teams work more efficiently but they will also gain enhanced customer satisfaction and confidence.

By providing customers with alternative ideas to resolve business needs and at a lower budget, a team can clearly demonstrate the concept of thinking $ for stakeholders of the customer organization and abpmcorp. This also helps win the customer's confidence and gain more projects in the future. Suggesting proactive solutions for the project saves time and brings $ for the customer and the vendor.

The team can save $ for the vendor by using low-cost resources without compromising on the quality of the work. Also, division of work based on expertise can help in achieving cost savings to the customer and in generating more projects to the vendor. Even simple and routine solutions can lead to cost and resource savings.

In one case, the team identified and recorded IT Bills of Materials (IT BOM). This helped estimate the project requirements, thereby controlling costs at the initial stage. It also aided in planning and procurement of resources on time and minimized costs during the later stages.

There have been instances where, by reviewing each deliverable and its delivery time, the team saved time and money. For example, the customer requested for a Japanese translation of the project documentation which was important to them at that point of time.

However, the documentation was iterative with project stages. Hence, the project manager suggested to the customer that the task be deferred to a later stage. The customer was convinced and agreed that the same amount of time could be utilized for activities critical to the project, thus saving $ for the stakeholders. In another illustration, the team proactively suggested reducing customer investments and helped them realize more profits.

Let us look at a few examples that demonstrate this mantra and the positive take aways of applying this mantra. $ for Stakeholders

CONTEXT 8.1: Provision for IT BOM (Bills of Material) during RFI (Request for Information) estimation.
CONTEXT 8.2: Reviewing the need for each deliverable and its delivery time during project scheduling.
CONTEXT 8.3: Factoring of requirements volatility in the estimate to ensure smooth delivery.
CONTEXT 8.4: Onsite to offshore resource rotation plan.
CONTEXT 8.5: Automating the process to reduce resources.
CONTEXT 8.6: Reducing batch processing time.
CONTEXT 8.7: Reducing cost of testing by partial automation.
CONTEXT 8.8: Improving productivity by developing queries.
CONTEXT 8.9: Improving productivity by creating re-usable routines.
CONTEXT 8.10: Improving the productivity in Unit Testing by developing a batch utility.
CONTEXT 8.11: Reducing the callout by fixing batch problems.
CONTEXT 8.12: Proactively suggesting application fine tuning.
CONTEXT 8.13: Saving $ for the customer by Knowledge Transfer.
CONTEXT 8.14: Reducing the customer investment by proactive suggestions.
CONTEXT 8.15: Automating tools to minimize resource use.

Assurance Based Project Management

The challenges faced by project managers include those in the hard track as well as the soft track.
Most project lifecycle activities follow defined processes, which take care of the hard track. These may be organization-specific and usually follow global standards. Most of the processes have evolved significantly on a worldwide basis (ISO, SEI-CMM and many others) and continue to evolve, as projects get more and more complex.

Project managers, however, continue to experience increasing challenges on the soft track during project execution. They face several vulnerabilities and uncertainties that might currently be dealt with in an ad hoc manner.

The need has been felt for a practical and simple solution, which will serve as a proactive guide to steer through the soft issues during project management. This is required so that all stakeholders can experience the assurance that the challenges (and opportunities) have been addressed in the best possible manner.

The maturity of such a solution is much higher than that of addressing the issues after they arise. In this case, the solution delivers an ecosystem that precludes them from arising in the first place and if they still do, it ensures that they have minimal impact on the success of the project.

Such a solution would generate more action points for the PM and team. This would help the project stakeholders experience the assurance of project success, in spite of the vulnerabilities and challenges that are inevitable. One such solution that has been conceived and presented here is in the form of the seven mantras for a successful project manager. This solution has been tried and tested in several projects, as well as in large million dollar accounts. What is presented here is practical, simple, tested, and comes from a practicing project manager.

The seven mantras framework at all times will help project managers to arrive at a discrete list of action items to address the challenges in the soft track, in an assured way. They can then act upon these action items, to steer through the vulnerabilities, to enable better project health. This entire approach is recurring and iterative, since perceptions of stakeholders change with time. This framework results in outcomes that are faster, better, cheaper, larger and delivered in a more consistent manner. They thereby ensure customer satisfaction, investor delight as well as increasing maturity of the project team.

This approach (of dealing with challenges in the soft track) when applied results in assurance amongst stakeholders of delivery on time, within the budget, and of the desired quality.


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